The existence of God in the eyes of the Bible in the face of science and philosophy
I - Introduction
This article, to produce it, would require that we take into account the dimension " reliability " with regard to the Bible, in order to establish the ideas that go under it. stretch the words that we would have to affirm. In this paper, we make no claim to deal with this aspect in detail. There are excellent authors who, through their research, have already produced multiple documents and resources, in various forms (articles, books, documentaries, …)[i], to address all questions effectively and down to the smallest detail. relating to the reliability of the Bible, and its veracity.
I.1- Nature of scientific truth in relation to that of the Bible
The Bible is not a scientific book but a work presenting in its essence the journey to access eternal life. It is a revelation from God about himself, about who we are, and about the relationship between him and us. However, it is striking to note that everything related to science in the Bible is extraordinarily correct. Therefore, in this revelation which is intended for human beings of all continents and of all times, it is necessary that the scientific facts, which are recorded there, can be understood by all at all times. We cannot read the Bible like we read other books because it is inspired by God. "All Scripture is inspired of God and useful for teaching, for convicting, for correcting, for instructing in righteousness" (2 Timothy 3:16).
However, according to some[ii], the Bible is seen as a " dusty old book ", widely dismissed by science as unreliable and unworthy of consideration. . In this rich and technical era in which we live, people find themselves confronted with the idea that science can explain everything, without any reference to God, or to the Bible, and, in return, they are often made to believe that this which is not scientific is not credible. The current culture absolutizes the value of scientific knowledge to the detriment of any other form of knowledge, and takes it to mean that only the scientific method can reveal the truth to us . Moreover, it must be said from the outset that the truth revealed by science is relative, provisional and evolutionary; so to speak, a scientific theory is not an indisputable truth. Scientists themselves question it. From time to time, a scientific theory that seemed indisputable is contradicted by newly observed facts. In this sense, science is called upon to rectify, to correct the theories that it has already previously established as true. Nothing is absolute in science, because it evolves according to the data present which, in turn, are not static. On the other hand, the Bible, whose field of knowledge is more certain, sets itself up as a source of absolute knowledge which, often, after many years, even centuries and millennia, is confirmed by scientific progress.
By the way, there are some interesting articles that have been produced, free of consultation, on the reliability of the Bible, in order to support the idea that the latter is a particular book supported by archaeological evidence[iii] , consequently historical ,  and scientific. Now, is it evident in the Bible that this creation testifies of a creator? Or that the human being, the crowning achievement of creation, bears a recognizable imprint of its creator ?
II.- What does the Bible say about the origin?
The Bible should not be read as if it were a scientific book. Nor should science be expected to answer spiritual questions. Nevertheless, in certain areas, both can help us to better understand the same reality. This is the case with regard to the beginning of the Universe.
II.1. - Science and the Bible
The assumption that the Universe was not eternal and that it was somehow created was uncomfortable for some scientists until the twentieth century when they discovered that the Universe never was not eternal but had come into existence from the big bang theory; a discovery that corroborates the very first verse of the Bible :
« In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth ” (Genesis 1 :1).
From the very first sentence of the Bible, God, bluntly, claims the title of Creator of the heavens and the earth ! So the first great discovery that the reader of the Bible makes is that God created the world (Universe). The idea that the Bible was so far ahead of modern cosmology was, to say the least, troubling to all those " sophisticated " scientists. Thus, this leads us to detect that science conveys a truth called " a posteriori " while that revealed by the Bible is "_cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_a priori ”. According to Bossuet, the term " vérité " is defined as transcendent knowledge revealed to men by sacred books or tradition [7 ] ”; in this way, we conclude that the so-called truth " à posteriori " derives from knowledge that comes from experience (empirical, factual), which fits well with scientific truth which is relative, provisional and evolutionary. On the other hand, a truth " a priori " comes from a knowledge independent of sensible experience[iv] but of intuition and logic, it is transcendental. In this sense, it is to be expected that science will side with the Bible, since the biblical affirmation imposes itself ex cathedra with regard to the origin (beginning, beginning) of the universe; which would be belatedly recognized by the scientific community by admitting that the Universe is not eternal, and which automatically refuted the first popular theory which stipulated that the Universe has always existed .
Despite this unequivocal statement, is this reason enough to conclude that the Bible is always ahead of science in its claims?
II.1.1.- Should we believe the Bible in relation to science?
For many, faith in a creator God revealed by the Bible is a myth of the past that has been surpassed by modern science. The union between science and faith is not always easy and sometimes there are disputes, but when the two manage to listen to each other and help each other, their dialogue becomes fascinating and fruitful since the affirmations of the Bible can become sources or leads for scientific fields. So, after showing that the Bible is as clear as can be on the question of origin, there are other biblical truths that have indeed been confirmed by science. For example, the scriptures even confirm that the Universe is expanding :
« He wraps himself in light like a garment, He spreads the heavens like a tent » (Psalm7 190_cc8 5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_:2)
« He who is enthroned on the disc of the earth, and its inhabitants are to him like grasshoppers, who has spread the heavens like a veil and who has rolled them out like a tent to dwell there_cc781905-5cde -3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_» (Isaiah 40 :22).
This is also confirmed by science : an expanding Universe , from 1928 by the work of Hubble and Humason . In the same vein, considering the passage of Isaiah, we also understand that the earth is round. The book of Isaiah was probably written between 701 and 681 BC. J.-C. ; while the roundness of the earth was proven by the scholar Eratosthenes (276 - 194 BC), then a little later by Galileo who was condemned by the Roman Catholic Church for heresy. Also, the books of Job[v] and Proverbs asserted the same thing (Job 26 :7,10 ; Proverbs 8_cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_:27) ; and the book of Job was written between 1440 and 950 BC. AD, and that of Proverbs around 900 BC. J.-C. -5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_Dieu suspends the earth on nothingness”, but it was necessary to wait until 1650 for scientists to announce this discovery, more than 3000 years later[vi]. Then there is the law of universal gravitation, formulated by Newton, which will not be published until 1687, and the idea that celestial bodies could literally be suspended in a vacuum, on nothing, was foreign to the mind. of the time. So we have noticed that the Bible is full of scientifically accurate and time-proven truths. Therefore, she is one step ahead of her time and science.
Therefore, it is more reasonable to position oneself on the side of the Bible to understand the circumstances surrounding our world, and which, as far as possible, will be confirmed by science as knowledge increases. It is in this same vein that this author said that " we should never interpret the Word of God (the Bible) according to circumstances, but circumstances according to what the Bible says, no matter how difficult it is. We should rather interpret the circumstances according to the Scriptures (the Bible) in order to see that nothing can thwart the purposes of God, nor nullify his promises. According to The New York Times, Allan Sandage, an atheist who became a Christian at the age of 50, is one of the greatest cosmologists in the world. The latter had to say que « many scientists are now led to faith by means of their own scientific works_5cc7 -5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_». In a nutshell, the testimony of science supports theism, because science when practiced correctly points to God.
II.2.- Philosophy and the Bible
Philosophy, from its origin, has offered indirect proofs of the existence of God, from its effects. In the same way that we can prove the existence of an artist from his works, we can prove the existence of God from the Universe itself. The Bible itself has been advising this way for ages:
“… whereas what can be known of God is manifest in them, for God has manifested it to them. eye, from the creation of the world, being considered in his works, that they may be inexcusable" (Romans 1:19-20)
God manifested himself in his works to awaken in the human soul the innate faculty of knowing him. And the apostle, in admirably chosen terms, teaches how far man can acquire the knowledge of God by beholding creation with the eyes of understanding. The same idea is supported in Hebrews 3 :4 which declares that God is the architect of the world built by someone, but the one who built all things is God ". So this revelation of the existence of God, the invisible builder of all things, is manifested by his visible works , that is to say men have always been able to consider God in his works. They see it in their intimate being, by a permanent revelation which is the consequence of the initial revelation of God to man. Despite all this, there are people who continue to trumpet that God does not exist ; which is not a surprise, by the way, since the Bible said that the fool says in his heart : there is no God. (Psalms 14_cc781905-5cde -3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_:1). A fool is one who is devoid of common sense, and having reached by the madness of reason without God. And, in the Bible, madness is more moral than intellectual.
“ The fool, indeed, speaks nonsense. He is inclined to commit evil, to act without respect for God, to speak blasphemous words for the Eternal. He leaves the hungry with an empty stomach and deprives the thirsty of drink ” (Isaiah 32 : 6, version of the sower)
Thus we find that atheism, according to Scripture, is not mere error, but willful blindness. To deny God, in fact, it is necessary not only to stifle the voice of the heart and of the conscience, but to go against the most elementary laws of thought, to renounce admitting a first cause and a final goal, to make the world a set of phenomena without a reason for being and without a guiding idea . In addition, there is agnosticism, called also " the thought of interrogation "_954cde3b-31-bb3 -136bad5cf58d_or " skepticism ", which is an attitude of thought asserting that there is not sufficient evidence to confirm the belief or not of the existence or non-existence of God. So we find that, in both cases, neither of the doctrines makes a conclusive assertion with respect to the existence or non-existence of God. Yet the Word of God declares that the proofs are indeed evident, for creation itself bears witness to it.
"The heavens declare the glory of the mighty God, And the expanse makes known the work of his hands... " (Psalms 19_cc781905-5cde -3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_:1-4)
In this text, the testimony of the Universe is as clear as it is coherent, but men, through their false reasoning, resist the idea that God is the author and creator of everything. Moreover, pantheism, the idea that the Universe coexists with the creator, that is to say that God is everything and everything is God[viii], does not stand up to the facts, because it is incapable of explain how the Universe came into existence. If the God of pantheism did not exist before the physical Universe, he would not have been able to bring this universe into existence. Moreover, the Bible teaches us that not everything can be God as presupposed by this philosophical doctrine, since God is against idolatry (Romans 1 :24-25). Moreover, we can read in Psalm 8:4 where the Scripture confirms that the heavens as well as the lights are the work of the hands of God.
As far as origins are concerned, it is necessary to go beyond the world of scientific investigations and the various philosophical theories. Nevertheless, the Bible describes the origin of the Universe and the earth in terms compatible with scientific facts and philosophical reasoning. The fact of having discovered that the Universe had a definite beginning corresponds to the clear declarations of the Bible.
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. She was in the beginning with God. All things were made by it, and nothing that was made was made without it” (John 1:1–3).
We have therefore found that the Bible remains consistent with its content, for in this statement we certainly see the allusion that is made to the first words of Genesis "In the beginning" (Bereschit ). The latter designates here the absolute beginning : the beginning of time, as well as of all beings that develop in time. Therefore, it is important to remove all doubts and exclude all exceptions with regard to the coming into existence of all things including the Universe. So to speak, God is indeed the origin of everything without exception.
Looking back, we can see that three methods were discussed to talk about the existence of God (science, reason [Philosophy] and faith [Bible]). The first two seek the truth about man and the world; and, they do it very differently. On the other hand, the third asserts truths about man and about the origin of everything, including the Universe. Certainly, the Bible is not a textbook of science, however, it is a truthful book. It deals with points of a scientific nature, and the terms used are exact and do not bear the imprint of old pseudo-scientific theories. Some of his assertions are not only scientifically founded, but they are also in complete contradiction with the views of the time. Also, there are certain truths, mostly of a spiritual order, which are not and will not be demonstrable by science or by philosophy, since the wisdom of the world cannot and will never be able to grasp the realities spiritual things about God.
We see that many of the statements made by the Bible are proven by scientific findings, and answer multiple philosophical objections. What is more, archaeological finds have repeatedly confirmed its veracity. So it is the revealed Word of God, written by men under the supervision of the Spirit of God.
« For prophecy has never been brought by the will of a man, but it is driven by the Holy Spirit that men from God have spoken_cc781905-5cde- 3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_". (2 Peter 1 :21)
All in all, the Bible, even though God uses men to write this revelation to mankind, is not the product or fruit of man's imagination or of his own initiative based on his genius mind. ; but it was moved by the Holy Spirit that they spoke on behalf of God. It is in this sense that Normand Geisler, Doctor of Philosophy, declared that "if we can trust the Bible when it speaks to us of the simple things of the world, which can be verified, we can also trust it in matters where we cannot prove it empirically ”.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ R. Saint-Paulin, What do philosophers think of the existence of God? www.s4ciministry.org.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ S. Romerowski, Where does the Bible come from? 1st ed. France: Farel, 2013.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ G. Gilbert, Why believe the Bible? Impact. Canada: Christian Publication, Inc., 2015.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ A. McGrath, Building bridges: the art of defending the Christian faith, Éditions la Clairière. QC, Canada: Christian Publications Inc., 1999.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ R. Saint-Paulin, The existence of God, what do scientists think? www.s4ciministry.org.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ I. and G. BOGDANOV, Before the Big Bang. Grasset & Fasquelle, 2004.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ CP, “Theories of the Expanding Universe,” L'Astronomy, vol. 67, p. 29, 1953.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ W. McDonald, ONE DAY AT A TIME, 2nd ed. (Ontario). Canada: BIBLICAL GUIDANCE SERVICE, 1996.
 _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_ R. Saint-Paulin, “Do not conform to the present age”. www.s4ciministry.org.
 L. STROBEL, Plea for Faith., Vida. France: Graphic Presence-Monts, 2002.
 Is transcendental what conditions a priori any possible experience.
https://www.rencontrerdieu.com/project/la-science-revele-lempreinte-de-dieu-un-serieux-plaidoyer-en-faveur-du-dieu-createur/ _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b -136bad5cf58d_
 https://comprendredieu.com/dieu-existe-t-il/dieu-existe-t-il-version-texte/ (consulted on 09/01/2019)
[i] To explore further on the question of the reliability and uniqueness of the Bible, we encourage you to consult these resources : 5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_? by Greg Gilbert ; “ Where does the Bible come from” by Sylvain Romerowski ; “ Particularity of the Bible”, “ Reliability of the Gospels : the gospels as credible texts” by Mauley [on https: Cola //www.s4cministry.org/apologetics]. And any other document treating with rigor on the subject, because the list is not exhaustive.
[ii] Indeed a scientist who, in search of an explanation of a new phenomenon, allowed himself even a slight allusion to divine intervention would see his work ejected from the scientific world. It would obviously be rejected during the review procedure by its peers: an argument of this type is inadmissible for a scientific journal which aims to be so.
[iii] Today, about 100 biblical figures, dozens of biblical cities and more than 60 historical details in the Gospel of John, 80 historical details in the book of acts of the apostles, among others, have been confirmed through research archaeological and historical. Furthermore, the Israel Antiquities Authority has more than 100,0000 artifacts (discovered since 1949) which are available in their database for consultation. https://www.s4cministry.org/la-bible-confrontation-entre-la-pen [From text by Mauley Colas]
[iv] Sensible experience, therefore, is understood as a natural phenomenon of the human species, which produces a new organization of cognitive patterns. It reconstructs values and has difficulty in being recognized by scientific production as a reality capable of producing knowledge. This challenges scientific knowledge on its own knowledge of the sensitive experience of the world.
[v] The book of Job does not specifically mention the name of its author. The authors most cited as the most plausible are Job himself, Lihue, Moses and Solomon. The date of writing of a book is determined by the author of the book. If Moses was the author of the book of Job, its date of writing would be around 1440 BC. J.-C. If it is Solomon, it would be around 950 BC. J.-C. Since we do not know the author, we cannot know the date of writing. Job.html
[vi] At the time, the influence of Aristotle was decisive. While assuming the earth to be spherical, he categorically denied that it could be suspended in a vacuum. Réfutant l'idée que la terre repose sur l'eau, il déclara ceci dans son Traité du ciel : " Neither does water [nor earth] naturally stay still in the air, but it must rest on something4 ". Aristotle's explanation stood. Indeed, how else to interpret that celestial bodies remain in suspension without being held to anything? The admiration that surrounded this character caused his opinion to be accepted as fact for about 2,000 years. Une encyclopédie (The New Encyclopædia Britannica) explique qu'aux XVIe et XVIIe_cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b- 136bad5cf58d_centuries the Church "raised to the rank of religious dogma" the conceptions of Aristotle.
[vii] According to Stephen C. Meyer, Doctor of Molecular Biology, specialist in questions about the origins of life, science and faith are not in conflict. When scientific fact and biblical teaching are correctly interpreted, they can support each other and that is what they do. For him, all those who doubt this should carry out their own investigation.
[viii] Does the Bible teach pantheism? No, but many people confuse pantheism with the doctrine of the omnipresence of God. Verses 7-8 of Psalm 139 state, “Where could I go from your spirit, where could I flee from your presence? If I go up to heaven, you are there; if I lay down in hell, there you are. The omnipresence of God means that he is present everywhere. There is no place in the universe where it is not present. This is not pantheism. God is everywhere, but he is not everything. https://www.gotquestions.org/English/le-pantheisme.html